During the investigation of the health of the couple who are trying to get pregnant, not only are women who need to pass the exams able to identify causes of infertility, but men as well. And one of the first tests requested in this process is the spermogram which, as the name suggests, will analyze in detail the characteristics of the male gamete.
“We mainly assess sperm concentration, their motility (how they are moving) and their morphology. This is essential for us to have the parameters of what are the chances of this gamete, in a natural way, being able to penetrate the uterus, go to the fallopian tube and find the egg after sexual intercourse”, explains urologist Matheus Roque, a specialist in human reproduction.
Also according to the doctor, the main characteristics that indicate normal male fertility are the presence of at least 5 million sperm per mL of semen and the perception of progressive motility, that is, that the gamete is moving forward , towards the egg.
How the spermogram is performed
The gynecologist and obstetrician Roberto de Azevedo Antunes, director of the Brazilian Society for Assisted Reproduction (SBRA), explains that the spermogram is performed through the collection of semen, which, in most cases, is performed through simple masturbation. “In some patients, this process can be done by electrical stimulation or prostatic massage, but they are exceptions for very specific cases”, completes the specialist.
Matheus also remembers that, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is guidance that men have two to seven days of sexual abstinence before semen collection so that the sperm analysis can be done through the test. .
In addition to infertility…
Obstetrician Roberto points out that when men have altered seminal parameters, their influence on the couple’s infertility is as relevant as that of tubal and ovulatory factors presented by women. Except that, in addition to analyzing the partners’ inability to get pregnant, the spermogram can contribute to the diagnosis of other male conditions.
“Semen that has a high number of leukocytes or piocytes suggests prostate infections, for example. Or a very low or absent ejaculate volume may indicate cases of retrograde ejaculation or some damage to the seminal vesicles. Thus, there are situations that, through the analysis of the semen, it is possible to infer other problems that are occurring in the male reproductive system as a whole”, reflects the specialist.
What Matheus only reinforces is the need to carry out the examination in reliable and specialized fertility laboratories so that, in case there is any alteration in the spermogram, the doctor can order other tests to reach the final and objective report.